Systemic lupus Erythematosus

Multisystem autoimmune disorder that is more common in women than men its cause is not clearly known. It may be linked to the genetic, environmental, hormonal and certain drugs.

Clinical manifestations:

1-Constitutional manifestations: fever, malaise, weight loss.

2-Muscloskeletal manifestations: arthralgia, arthritis, myalgia.

3-Mucocutaneous manifestations: malar rash, photosensitivity, non-scaring alopecia, discoid rash, oral ulcers.

4-Renal manifestations: glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis, antiphospholipid nephropathy.

5-Pulmonary manifestations: pleuritic, pleural effusion, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, pulmonary hypertension.

6-Cardiovascular manifestations: pericarditis, myocarditis, Libman-Sacs endocarditis, conduction system abnormalities, premature atherosclerosis. 7-Neuropsychiatricmanifestations: seizures, headache, acute confusional state, cognitive dysfunction, myelopathy, peripheral neuropathy.

8-Blood manifestations: anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, arterial/venous thrombosis.

9-Gastrointistinalmanifestations: peritonitis, hepatitis, pancreatitis, mesenteric vasculitis.

10-Ocular manifestation: keratoconjunctivitissicca, retinal vasculitis.


1-Accelerated atherosclerosis.

2- End stage renal disease. 3-Infection.

4-Osteoporosis and avascular necrosis.



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